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''Developed by Sarantis Pavlidis''
''Developed by Sarantis Pavlidis ''
Latest revision as of 14:47, 4 March 2019
Developed by Sarantis Pavlidis - s172559
There are various definitions of what a team is about. However, one of the most well-known is the one given by Katzenbach and Smith (1993)  according to which the team is a small number of people with complementary skills - talents dedicated to a common purpose, a set of performance objectives and an approach for which are mutually responsible. This definition is an extension of the definition given by Adair (1986)  as the responsibility of the members added at the latest's data. An important feature of the teams added by Mankin, Cohen and Bikson (1996)  is the interdependence of individual's activities, as the work of each member is dependent on the work of at least some other's members. Larson and LaFasto (1989)  also emphasized that the core element of the team is also the coordination of the activities of its members, which is necessary to achieve the objectives. Even earlier, Francis and Young (1979)  had spoken of an active set of people who are dedicated to achieving common goals, working successfully together and producing high quality results whilst taking pleasure through it. An advanced definition is also given by Kur (1996)  who examined the team as an open, goal-oriented , socio-technical system in a tension state between change and stability.
In addition,  It refers to a process and activities for improving team performance. This article focuses on people perspective as an aspect of project management and provides an overview of the stages of team development. Design of Team Development and how to manage team conflicts are also mentioned. Members of a project team can use the current article to identify the team structure, to understand the stages of developing a team or to deepen their knowledge of the subject. The model can be used in any industry where people are involved to perform teamwork in a project. For example in constructions, information technology, mechanical engineering, civil engineering etc. Effective collaboration is crucial to the success of a project.is a method for developing a project team.
 Successful team
There are some objective criteria that characterize a successful team which works effectively and efficiently. There are eleven points which are consist of such a team  :
- Relationship and work environment
- Participation of members
- Understand goals, accept and commit to them
- Communication and information sharing
- Addressing conflicts and disputes
- Decision making
- Evaluation of member's performance
- Expression of emotions
- Job sharing
- Knowledge of Operations
 Benefits of using Teams
Reconciliation of employee's skills, qualifications and experience is necessary for a wider and more effectively confrontation of each problem, making the right decisions and find the optimal solutions for the business. As examined by Scholtes et al (1998) , the teams have advantages over individuals when:
- the issue is more complex
- creativity is required
- the path is not clear
- a more efficient use use of resources is required
- quick learning is necessary
- strong binding is desired
- the process is cross-functional
The most frequently reported benefits for businesses using teams are  :
- Increase Productivity
- Improving communication and collaboration while removing corresponding barriers
- Increase speed
- Enhance creativity and innovation
- Increasing employee dedication and satisfaction
- Strengthening of customer-focused culture
- Increasing organizational adaptability and flexibility
- Improvements to quality
- Decentralize responsibilities and create more flexible and level hierarchical structures.
These benefits, and especially the latter, are the result of the empowerment of the teams, the process through which they are given resources, power, information and the responsibility that a task requires .
 Design and Development of Teams
 Stages of Team Development
One factor that can particularly affect the effectiveness of a team is its maturity. In correspondence with the mature person, which evolves, improves and gains confidence and stability over time, so the teams mature at different rates. As most bibliographic sources , , , ,  agree, teams are being developed in stages. These stages are determined according to the "Form-Storm-Norm-Perform" (FSNP model) introduced by Bennis & Stepard and Tuckman in 1965 ,  and describing the phases that a group passes from the moment of its creation until it matures in a high-performance group. The period following the formation of a team is called a stage of Forming. During this time the team members first come into contact with the rules and procedures of its operation and start exploring the ways in which they will cooperate better with each other. At this stage, most discussions relate to the team's goals and the possible roles that members will take. People are usually proud of their choice, enthusiasm for the new form of work,but also confusion, anxiety and uncertainty about the future of the effort. A heavy weight falls on the person who will be appointed as team leader, who is invited to promote familiarity among members, to clarify their questions, to encourage their participation in the first tasks and to provide the necessary information for the beginning. As a logic, the team's performance is low and all jobs are running at a slow pace. While the first stage rarely gives rise to disagreements, when objectives, targets, rules and roles begin to determine each subsequent move, the first problems are raised. The term storm used for this second stage with the meaning of crisis, intense disorder implying its difficulty. As individuals realize that the whole process is not that simple, they are overwhelmed by feelings of doubt or even jealousy that lead to reactions to leadership, tasks and priorities. Objectives and rules are being reviewed. The possible refusal to compromise with faces and situations may lead to the formation of subgroups - clusters and the effort of the most powerful to impose their ideas. The role of leader at this stage should be balanced with an emphasis on the principle of equivalence of members because the continuation of conflicts in terms of power and duties may result from negative psychology to disengagement and disastrous for the team's future. The overall performance of the team remains low. Once the first conflicts are successfully handled, the team moves to the next stage where the group's norms are developed, ie the fundamentals, the bases, the limits of its operation. This is the stage of norming. Eliminating reactions and achieving consensus on issues and rules creates feelings of trust, consistency and optimism among members. Replacing competitive relationships with cooperative relationships has an immediate positive impact on team performance as it allows individuals to use their time and energy constructively. At this stage, the leader should pay attention to the benefit of member's knowledge, abilities and skills by encouraging their active participation in all activities of the team. The final stage of the maturing of the teams is characterized by their high performance, which also owes its name (Performing). Members have assimilated the way the team operates and have accepted the strengths and weaknesses of their colleagues. Communication and cooperation between them has been optimized, and the division of responsibilities is more flexible than ever. Disagreements only exist on important issues and contribute to a more comprehensive response. The team is now able to diagnose and resolve problems, choose and implement changes. The duration and intensity of each phase varies from team to team. The latter stage is rarely achieved, as it requires smart individuals and a charismatic leader with experience in teamwork. However, the understanding of these phases makes it easier for the members to comprehend the individual difficulties and to be more attentive to their reactions.
 Elements of enhancing the performance of teams
Apart for the right planning, there are various practices that teams should adopt in their operation for their development and ensuring high performance. According to Katzenbech and Smith (1993) , the main ones are:
- Creating direction and sense of urgency: Team members should think that the purpose of the teams is urgent and worthy of importance, and they also need to know what are the expectations of the business.
- Addressing the first meetings and actions of the groups with special attention: initial impressions always play a decisive role of people with increased power (leaders, managers) because of the greater influence, especially at this stage.
- Defining clear rules of behavior: For the smooth operation of teams, it is necessary to formulate rules in which members will advance towards achieving their goals. The first issues that need to be regulated are to monitor meetings (eg, bans on phone calls), organize discussions, confidentiality, analytical approach (on the basis of events), work and confrontation.
- Identify some direct tasks and goals: This process in the first steps of the teams encourages the activation and the binding of the members.
- Regular data-based control: New information and circumstances should be taken into account in reviewing rules, objectives and procedures to continuously improve team performance.
- Consuming enough time together: Common sense dictates that team members should pass through enough time together, especially at the beginning, both officially and unofficially.This contact helps develop communication and collaboration and promotes creativity.
- Use of positive feedback, recognition and reward: Encouraging and supporting members, recognizing their efforts and rewarding extraordinary attempts, works promisingly and promotes individual performance within the group.
 From the individual to the team
There are training consultants who can help a company's employees learn to behave as a group member. With group workshops and games, employees learn to enjoy the satisfaction of collective work. They help them develop their communicative and negotiating skills. They also teach them techniques for problem solving and conflict management. At the same time, they remind them that they need patience because a group needs more time to decide on a person.
 The evaluation and reward system
The remuneration system should be redesigned to promote collective action against individual success. For example, beyond the individual, an annual bonus can also be introduced to achieve the group goals. Promotions, salary increases as well as other forms of employee recognition should be based on how effective individuals are as members of their team. That is, for example, educating new colleagues, sharing information with other members of their team, and trying to develop those skills that their team needs. Naturally, individual achievements will not be ignored but will be combined with the collective achievements. Finally, managers should remember that for employees the sense of belonging to a team and the satisfaction provided by them may be the best incentive to improve the effectiveness of the teams.
 The stages of training a group in order to acquire a collective awareness
It is extremely important to properly train the members of the group in order to acquire the qualifications they need. This training should be done at the right time and in a way that does not depress people. We distinguish the following five stages of training :
 Stage 1: Startup
The challenge of this stage is to prepare the selected officials to join the team and feel pledged to the whole project. Training focuses on:
- Knowledge on what the working groups are, why they are important and how team members can benefit from it
- Basic interpersonal skills (giving and receiving feedback)
- Basic administrative procedures (file updating, materials ordering etc.)
- Technical training for all team's tasks.
 Stage 2: State of Confusion
The challenge at this stage is to help individuals overcome their personal confusion and impatience without being discouraged to leave the group. Training for team members focuses on:
- Learn how to do things in groups - communicate their expectations, undertake a new assignment, define the requirements of a project, and learn to ask for help.
- Develop administrative capabilities
- Extend the training technique so that they learn the members of the team and the duties of other members to be able to replace them whenever necessary.
 Stage 3: Leader-Centered Teams
The challenge at this stage is to encourage the development of the team, but not at the expense of productivity gains. The training of team members focuses on:
- How to guide and participate in problem-solving meetings.
- How to evaluate the performance of the team.
- How to qualify for advanced technical skills.
 Stage 4: Tightly Formed Teams
The challenge at this stage is to broaden the team's goals to include organizational goals without loosing team spirit. The training of the team members focuses on :
- Learning to work beyond the boundaries of the group by creating cooperative relationships, gaining support and and resolving conflicts.
- Apply the administrative training they have received to calculate the cost of quality and define specifications with vendors.
- Apply technical training that they received to perform tasks to support the team's tasks.
 Stage 5: Self-Directed Teams
The challenge of this stage is to avoid a repeat of what we have achieved by setting new goals. Membership training focuses on:
- Addressing customer-supplier relationships both internally and externally. Understanding customer expectations. Dealing with unhappy customers.
- Understanding the market
- Learning accounting processes such as reading financial reports or calculating ROI.
- Applying administrative training to respond to the feedback they receive from their clients.
 Protocols to Improve Behavior and Performance of the Team
According to Rick Ross, it is extremely useful for a team to print cards for its members that will state the following five principles:
- Be mindful of my goals. What do I want from this discussion? Am I prepared to influence?
- Balancing advocacy by exploring. What led you to this view? What do you mean by this view?
- Build common meanings. When we use the term.....What do we mean ....
- Use self-knowledge as a resource. What do I think? What do I feel? What do I want?
- Investigate the deadlocks. What do we agree with and what do we disagree with?
It is not difficult for team members to follow these five protocols, but training is required. Any group following these protocols will notice an improvement in its behavior and increase its effectiveness.
 Team Facilitator
A team facilitator according to Schwarz Roger (1994)  is the process in which an individual is accepted by all members of the team, virtually neutral and without power, makes decisions to help the team improve the way is recognizes and resolves the problems as well as the way it makes decisions. The purpose of this process is to increase the efficiency of the team. The person doing the above process is called a team facilitator. This person should be neutral, i.e. not in favor of a proposed solution, acceptable from all members of the team and not have the power to decide. Therefore, practically and by definition a member of the team, no matter how well has been trained, cannot be a team facilitator. But if there is a budget limitation or the process is expected to finish late, then a member of the team can take on this role. This person should be trained appropriately, preferably in the performance of his/her duties, by an external facilitator. In order for the team to maintain its autonomy and, to increase its effectiveness, facilitator interventions should gradually reduce the team's dependence on it. This is particularly achieved through facilitator interventions that teach team members the ability to facilitate dialogue. The facilitator should constantly encourage those members of the group who have not submitted their views. It should regulate the flow of the debate, following a dialogue model inviting people to behave as partners. The main task of Facilitator is to help the team to increase its effectiveness by improving the process that follows. The process includes:
- How should members talk to each other
- How do they identify and solve problems
- How do they decide
- How do they handle conflicts.
 Group Problems
 Problematic Operational conditions
Despite the fact that the development and use of working teams has led to impressive results for many companies in various industries, the transition from traditional operating structures to group-based structures is often characterized by problems due to operational conditions. The most common problems of the groups are related to the company's existing structure and hierarchy. The steady form of jobs and responsibilities, strict job descriptions, and the graduation of employees at hierarchy levels based on non-performance and productivity criteria are in contrast to flexibility, increasing obligations but also the rights of the groups. The inhibitory element is also to maintain the old forms of management systems (eg evaluation and remuneration) after team building because it minimizes the motivation of the group members and creates the impression that the teams are not important for the business. Also, another problem, which is often associated with the above-mentioned circumstances, is the indifference and the lack of support for the work of the teams by the senior administration. There are executives who feel that their position is threatened by the changes brought by teams, while others, due to lack of knowledge and experience, can not recognize the ability of the teams to contribute to the progress of the business. The result is particularly negative: the competencies of the teams are limited, the participation of the administration in their activities is minimal and their development efforts are constantly hampered. In terms of administration, it is also also often very impatient and interested only in the short-term results of the groups, which favors the superficial treatment of things and the reduction of long-term improvement efforts by their members. Incomplete training is one of the most common reasons for the failure of the teams . The skills and competencies required for the harmonious and effective co-operation of their members are only acquired through continuous training and practice. Running people with tools and strategies that they have not understood and assimilated can lead the team to making mistakes. The lack of appropriate training is also due to a number of problems related to the misguided organization and lack of planning of the group's activities, such as the absence of clear objectives and rules, the allocation of responsibilities depending only on the position of individuals in the company hierarchy, ineffective meetings etc. Several times the group members have not enough time to deal with activities of the teams, as the group's tasks are simply added to their daily program, without providing for a corresponding reduction in their remaining responsibilities. Although the problem is due to incorrect programming, most of the time the underlying causes of the problem are traced to the traditional structure that emphasizes individual tasks and management's reluctance to support the creation of working groups alongside the existing business.
 Conflicts within the Group
Even when the environment is particularly conducive to the functioning of the teams, problems that arise through them are encountered. The collaboration of individuals, each of which has a different personality, ideology, views, experiences and knowledge is the basis of the strengths of the groups but can also create tensions and conflicts between them. Several researchers note two kinds of such conflicts. The first type meets cognitive conflict, task-focused conflict and refers to member disputes that focus on common goals. This kind should be treated with discussion and further analysis rather than being avoided or ignored, because it can prove highly constructive and help increase the effectiveness, quality of decision making, creativity, compassion and team performance  , , , . The second type meets with the terms affect conflict, relationship conflict, and interpersonal conflict and refers to disagreements arising from personality conflicts or emotional interactions between members, often perceived as personal attacks. Unlike the former, this type is considered to be detrimental because it can lead to increased mistrust, hostility, cynicity and apathy of members, while reducing team cohesion and the likelihood of unanimity  . Such conflicts must be recognized and reduced through discussion before they are out of control , . Conflicts are often caused by individuals incompatible with mavericks. These people are only interested in themselves and not for the team, and they are not cooperating and helping the other members . Negative behavior can be the result of fear (for example, from executives who consider groups threatening their position) or refusal to take up further duties, so appropriate training of attitude change and encouraging treatment with comprehension and pressure is needed. But if it is due to a problematic personality with hardships and vices, it is advisable for the individual to move away from the function of groups and to deal individually with the subject of his / her specialty.
 Managing Conflicts
Conflict Keys to confront the internal conflicts of groups is prevention and training. Disagreements over regulatory, organizational and operational issues can be avoided or solved directly with appropriate preparation and briefing of members from their first gathering. But in order to smooth out any conflict, they need interpersonal skills - skills taught, developed and improved through ongoing training and teamwork.Weiss  mentions four abilities that group members must have to be able to disagree without hindering the smooth operation of the team:
- Ability to listen to their interlocutors by concentrating their attention in addition to so-called elements such as gestures, body postures, voice tones giving extra information
- Ability to understand the position and feelings of others (understanding does not necessarily mean agreement, but perception of the different view of the argumentation and avoiding misinterpretations and misunderstandings)
- Ability to rejoin with new alternatives and corresponding arguments in a way that does not offend the rest horses
- Ability to resolve differences by analyzing their underlying causes and choosing the most reasonable and acceptable solution Based on Rayeski and Bryant's  analysis of the escalation of group tensions, three stages can be followed:
- Collaboration: As soon as a problem occurs, efforts should be made to resolve informally among the members concerned, with open, sincere discussion and avoiding excessive reactions.
- Mediation: If the situation grows, a third person with more experience and ability to handle tensions, such as the animator, is called to mediate to reach agreement between the conflicting sides. The effectiveness of mediation depends to a large extent on the mediator's neutrality and the trust that the two sides have.
- Group meeting: If cooperation and mediation fail, it is the whole group's turn to help with the problem.
At a meeting where all members are present, an analysis of the situation and the arguments of the two sides is made, while efforts are made to link the problem to the requirements of the business or customers. In such meetings, it is advisable to strictly observe the rules of the team and under the guidance of the Chief to have full feedback from all members on the subject. The leader is generally considered to be primarily responsible for keeping calm within the team and is required to regulate his intervention according to the problem from nothing in negligible circumstances to catalyzing by removing a member from the group, but only in extreme cases.
 Annotated Bibliography
- Patrick Lencioni - The Five Dysfunctions of a Team_ A Leadership Fable (J-B Lencioni Series) -Jossey-Bass (2002)
- Overcoming the Five Dysfunctions of a Team_ A Field Guide for Leaders, Managers, and Facilitators -Jossey-Bass (2005)
- Team Development for High Tech Project Managers (2002)
- Jon R. Katzenbach, Douglas K. Smith - The Wisdom of Teams_ Creating the High-Performance Organization-Harvard Business Press (1992)
- J. Richard Hackman - Leading Teams_ Setting the Stage for Great Performances-Harvard Business Review Press (2002)
- Glenn M. Parker - Team Players and Teamwork, Completely Updated and Revised_ New Strategies for Developing Successful Collaboration-Jossey-Bass (2008)
- David Sibbet - Visual Teams_ Graphic Tools for Commitment, Innovation, and High Performance -Wiley (2011)
- Olivier L. de Weck, Daniel Roos, Christopher L. Magee, Charles M. Vest - Engineering Systems_ Meeting Human Needs in a Complex Technological World-The MIT Press (2011)
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 , Katzenbach J., Smith D., 1993, The Wisdom of Teams, Harvard Business School Press, United States of America, McKinsy & Company, Inc
- ↑ , Adair, J., 1986, Effective Team building, Gower, Aldershot
- ↑ , Mankin D., Cohen S., Bikson T., 1996, Teams & Technology, Harvard Business School Press, United States of America
- ↑ , Larson, C., LaFasto, F., 1989, Teamwork, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA
- ↑ , Francis, D., Young D., 1979, Improving Work Groups. A Practical Manual for Teambuilding, University Associates, La Jolla, CA
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 , Kur, E., 1996 The faces model of high performing team development, Leadership & Organizational Development Journal, 17, 1, 32-41
- ↑ Page 319, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) - Sixth Edition (2017) - Project Management Institute
- ↑ Thomas L. Quick,1992, "Successful Team Building" (The WorkSmart series), American Management Association, New York, AMACON.
- ↑ Scholtes P., Joiner B., Streibel B., 2003, The Team Handbook, Third Edition, Oriel Incorporated
- ↑ Recardo R., Wade D., 1996, Teams: Who needs them and why, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas
- ↑ Fisher K., 1993, Leading self-directed work teams: A guide to developing new team leadership skills, New York, NY: McGraw-Hill
- ↑ Rickards T.-Moger S., 1999, Handbook for Creative Leaders, Gower Publishing, Aldershot
- ↑ Robbins H.-Finley M., 1996, Why Teams don't Work. What Went Wrong and How to Make it Right, Onion Publishing Group
- ↑ Stott K.-Walker A., 1995 Teams, Teamwork & Teambuilding, Prentice-Hall, London
- ↑ Bennis W.G.-Shepard H.S., 1965: "A theory of Group Development", Human Relations
- ↑ Tuckman B. W., "Developmental sequence in small groups", Psychological Bulletin, 1965
- ↑ Orsburn J., Moran L., Musselwhite E., Zenger J., 1990, Self-Directed Work Teams, The new American Challenge, The Book Press Inc.
- ↑ Schwarz R., 1994, The skilled Facilitator: Practical wisdom for developing effective groups, Jossey Bass, San Francisco
- ↑ Harrington Mackin, D., 1994, The Team Building Tool Kit, American Management Association, New York, NY
- ↑ Amason A. C. – Thompson K. R. – Hochwarter W. A. – Harrison, A. W., 1995, Conflict: An important dimension in successful management teams, Organizational Dynamics
- ↑ Capozzoli T. K., Conflict resolution: A key ingredient in successful teams, Supervision, 56(12), 1995
- ↑ Amason A. C., Distinguishing the effects of functional and dysfunctional conflict on strategic decision making: Resolving a paradox for top management teams, Academy of Management Journal, 39(1), 1996
- ↑ Jennsen O. – Van De Vliert E. – Veenstra C., How task and person conflict shape the role of positive interdependence in management teams, Journal of Management, 25(2), 1999
- ↑ Amason et al, 1995, ο.π./ Amason, 1996, ο.π. / Eisenhardt K. M.- Kahwajy J. L. - Bourgeois L. J., Conflict and strategic choice: How top management teams disagree, California Management Review, 39(2), 1997
- ↑ 19Fisher K. – Rayner S. – Belgard W., Tips for teams : A ready reference for solving common team problems, NY, McGraw-Hill Inc., 1995
- ↑ Bens I., “Keeping your teams out of trouble” , Journal of Quality and Participation, 22(4), 1999
- ↑ Summers L. – Rosen B., 1994, Mavericks ride again, Training and Development
- ↑ Weiss D. H., 1997, “Four steps for managing team storms” , Getting Results For the Hands-On Manager
- ↑ Rayeski E. – Bryant J. D., “Team resolution process: A guideline for teams to manage conflict, performance, and discipline” , in M. Beyerlein & M. Bullock (Eds.), The International Conference on Work Teams Proceedings: Anniversary Collection. The Best of 1990 – 1994, Denton: University of North Texas, Center for the Study of Work Teams, 1994