Eisenhower Decision Matrix in Project, Program and Portfolio Management

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Written by Nils Hendrik Lange (s223634)

The Eisenhower Decision Matrix, also known as the Eisenhower Principle or Urgent-Important Matrix[1], is a tool used to prioritize tasks and make informed decisions. This matrix is based on the distinction between urgency and importance and helps individuals, project managers, and organizational leaders to align their activities with their goals and priorities. In the context of project, program, and portfolio management (PPPM), the Eisenhower Decision Matrix is a valuable tool for assessing project initiatives, allocating resources, and measuring progress. The matrix enables organizations to identify and focus on the most critical tasks, avoid unnecessary distractions, and make the best use of their time and resources[2]. This article will discuss the concept of the Eisenhower Decision Matrix and its application in project, program, and portfolio management, including tips and best practices for effective implementation.


Big Idea

Origin and development

Dwight D. EisenhowerDwight D. Eisenhower served as a five-star general in the US Army and later became the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961. Eisenhower was well known for his leadership qualities and especially for his time management[3]. Throughout his career, Eisenhower needed a system to organize and handle all of the challenging decisions he had to make, both in politics as well as on the battlefield[4]. Eisenhower and his associates developed a tool to support task prioritization and decision-making. This tool was the Urgent-Important Matrix, commonly called the Eisenhower Decision Matrix. The basis of the matrix is the principle that not all tasks have an equal priority and that some require more urgent attention than others. Decades later, author Stephen Covey popularized Eisenhower’s framework in his book The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. As a result, the Eisenhower Matrix has become a popular time-management and decision-making framework in business, especially in project management[5]. The matrix has shown to be a practical tool for both individuals and teams to prioritize work and make decisions. An individual can use the matrix to manage their own to-do list and concentrate on the most crucial chores, while a corporate team may use it to prioritize projects based on their urgency and relevance[6].

Understanding the Eisenhower Matrix

As mentioned before the Eisenhower Decision Matrix is a productivity tool used to support individuals, teams or organizations to prioritize tasks and projects based on the two dimensions urgency and importance. The two dimensions allow for the separation in four different quadrants ranging from not urgent and not important to urgent and important[7]. Figure 1 visualizes the Eisenhower Decision Matrix.

Figure 1: Visualization of the Eisenhower Decision Matrix.[6]

First Quadrant

The first quadrant - DO FIRST - addresses tasks that are classified as both, urgent and important. Tasks in this quadrant require immediate attention and are the top priority in relation to tasks in other categories. Most urgent and significant issues have clear deadlines and negative outcomes in case of a delay. There should be no doubt about whether a task falls into this category because these are the tasks that most probably stress the responsible person the most [7]. Examples of tasks for the first quadrant can be finishing a client project, submitting a draft article or picking up sick children from school[8].

Second Quadrant

The second quadrant - SCHEDULE - classifies the task into important but not urgent. Although these tasks have a high priority, they can be addressed within a longer timeframe. This quadrant supports long-term objectives and calls for proactive action. Prioritizing these issues might have a bigger impact on the overall vision despite the fact that it is frequently ignored. The key to achieving notable accomplishments and producing value for the organization and its people is to spend more time in this area. Focusing on this sector entails being proactive and prioritizing tasks that develop abilities and vitality and help achieve important objectives. Consistent attention to Quadrant 2 will lead to a reduction in the number of urgent issues that surface in Quadrant 1[9]. Examples of tasks in this quadrant can be strategic planning, professional development or networking[8].

Third Quadrant

The third quadrant - DELEGATE - contains tasks that are urgent but not important. Even though these tasks require immediate attention, they do not impact the goals or objectives of something or someone significantly. People frequently spend a lot of time in this quadrant, believing that these issues are significant when, in fact, they are not. To free up time for crucial work in the second quadrant, Covey advises delegating jobs in this quadrant. By delegating tasks in this way, you'll not only free up time but also build trust with your team members, which will benefit everyone[10]. Examples of tasks classified in this quadrant can include preparing a first draft for a milestone presentation, scheduling or responding to emails[8].

Fourth Quadrant

The fourth quadrant - DON'T DO - covers tasks that are neither urgent nor important. The completion of the tasks does not contribute to achieving one's goals or objectives and can therefore be eliminated. They can even be considered time-wasting activities. With the exception of leisure time, which can be used to recharge away from vital tasks, they must be erased or abandoned. However, if not intentional about it, the way leisure time is spent affects one's passion and creativity and even drains the energy even more[9]. Activities that are classified in the fourth quadrant include more or less non-value-adding activities like scrolling through social media, watching TV or eating junk food[8].

Classification process in the quadrants

To determine which tasks or projects can be classified into which quadrant it is critical to assess the urgency and importance of each entity. The steps below can be used as a guide to follow when evaluating each asset. In addition to these steps, some best practices for using the Eisenhower Decision matrix will be stated later in this article. This includes tips for effectively using the matrix as well as pointing out potential pitfalls to avoid[10]. Figure 2 on the right side shows an example of the classification process.

Figure 2: Visualization of an example for classifying projects in the Eisenhower Decision Matrix.
  1. Identify the task or project: Start by listing all tasks and projects that need to be completed by a team or an organization without a specific order. This list may already exist in the form of a to-do list for the day, week or month or a list of ongoing projects.
  2. Determine the urgency: Every task or project can be connected to a deadline. If there is non, the urgency might be low. Evaluate how soon the task in question needs to be completed. To do so a scale from 1-5 can add value to the assessment since it ensures comparability between different units. In this case, 1 stands for a really low urgency while a 5 indicates a high level of urgency.
  3. Determine the importance: Evaluate how important each task or project is for achieving the overall goals or objectives. How important is the task in an overall context and in relation to the other objectives in consideration. Again, a scale from 1-5 can add value to the evaluation. In this case, 1 stands for really low importance while a 5 indicates high importance.
  4. Place tasks in quadrants: After evaluating both dimensions of the matrix for each task or project, they can be placed in the appropriate quadrant of the Eisenhower Decision Matrix using the corresponding score from the previously defined scale. Urgent and important tasks go in the first quadrant, important but not urgent tasks go into quadrant two, urgent but not important tasks go into the third quadrant, and lastly, not urgent and not important tasks go in the fourth quadrant.

However, it is crucial to keep in mind that neither the urgency nor the importance stays the same over time. A task within a project might become urgent and important once another, previous, step is successfully completed. Therefore, it is important to regularly evaluate and update the tasks and projects considered in the matrix to ensure appropriate handling of the same according to their classification.

Advantages & limitations of the matrix

The use of the Eisenhower Decision Matrix provides a lot of advantages to individuals, teams and organizations but is also characterized by some limitations addressed in this section.

Advantages of using the matrix are versatile and presented by the following four [11]:

  1. Prioritization of tasks: The simple structure of the matrix helps decision makers to properly understand the process. This helps to prioritize the task based on the level of urgency and importance connected to a task or project. By focusing on the tasks identified as the most urgent and important ones, those responsible can focus on the effective use of their recourses and thus ensure to achieve the goals set efficiently.
  2. Increased productivity: The matrix also ensures that involved parties become more productive as the matrix provides a clear structure of their work. The breakdown of tasks into four categories allows to focus the energy on the tasks that have the highest priority and reduces the time spent on less important tasks.
  3. Better time management: Additionally, the matrix supports managing time more effectively due to the provided system for organizing tasks and projects. The defined classification helps to avoid procrastination, complete time within the given timeline, and reduce stress.
  4. Improved decision making: The matrix offers a framework for choosing actions by taking both importance and urgency into account. People can use the matrix to help them make decisions that are in line with their or their companies' goals and objectives.

Limitations of the Eisenhower Decision Matrix are the following[12]:

  1. Subjectivity: The Eisenhower Decision Matrix relies on a subjective assessment of the two dimensions of importance and urgency. The same information can be interpreted differently by different involved parties, producing various outcomes depending on the perspective.
  2. Lack of Contextual Information:: The matrix only takes into account importance and urgency; it neglects other crucial elements like resources or the consequences of not finishing a task or project. This could result in poor decision-making and unintentional results.
  3. Inflexibility: Tasks that may fit into more than one category are not supported by the Eisenhower Decision Matrix, which only offers four alternatives. As a result, it could be challenging to use the matrix in complex real-world scenarios where a clear distinction is not always possible.
  4. Over-simplification: The simple structure, which was considered positive before, can also be a disadvantage which is connected to the previous limitation. The matrix is a straightforward tool that does not account for the complexity of many situations in the actual world. It might not always be suitable or sufficient for making decisions in more complicated situations where more criteria for the holistic evaluation might be necessary.
  5. Difficulty in Delegation: The matrix supports the delegation of tasks and projects, although delegation can be challenging and may call for additional abilities and resources. This can lead to inefficiencies and delays in completing tasks.

Relevance & application in PPPM

Relevance of the matrix in PPPM

The Eisenhower Decision Matrix is highly relevant for PPPM. The reasons for the relevance of all three points of the PPPM are very close to each other. In project management, the tool is used to prioritize individual tasks and allocate resources. Project managers benefit from the matrix as they use it to identify tasks that are crucial for the project and have a high impact. In program management, the matrix can be used to ensure that the prioritized program activities are aligned with the organization's strategy. The matrix can be used by program managers to identify essential responsibilities and make sure they have the support and resources they need. This can contribute to more effectively and efficiently achieving program objectives. From a portfolio management perspective the matrix can assist in project prioritization and make sure that portfolio management efforts are in line with the organization's overarching strategic goals[9].

Application of the matrix in PPPM

Figure 3: Visualization of an example application of the Eisenhower Decision Matrix.

To put the theory into practice the process of applying the Eisenhower Decision Matrix is shown in Figure 3. The shown process is an example of a software implementation project led by a project manager that just started. The project manager is using the matrix from his perspective, aiming to complete the project within the timeline, using the right quality and quantity of resources[8].

Figure 3 is split into three parts. The first one addresses the 13 tasks identified as being in scope while the second part of the figure shows the scores for urgency (U.S. for Urgency Score) and importance (I.S. for Importance Score) that were assigned to each task. As mentioned before in the description of the classification process, a scale from 1-5 was used for the evaluation of each dimension of each task. Lastly, in the third part, the task gets placed on the matrix to classify them into the four categories of the Eisenhower Decision Matrix.

The starting point, as described above in the classification process, is the identification and listing of the tasks to be completed. This can be done through the use of a TO-DO list. The first step "1. To-Do-List" shown in Table 3 shows the tasks to be done. Subsequently, points are distributed in steps 2 and 3. The urgency and importance of a task are assessed. Task 1 involves communication with stakeholders. Stakeholders relevant to the project always need an update on the status of the project. If this is not done, the project may come to a stop. Therefore, the urgency and importance is very high. While task 1 is awarded both a high urgency and importance, task 4 is awarded only very low scores. Task 4, writing and reviewing code, is an operational task that is not the responsibility of the project manager. Additionally, the project is just started so writing code is not important or urgent. Task 13, for example, is assigned a low urgency but medium importance. The planning of usability testing in task 13 is important, but not yet urgent, as the project has just started and tests will only become relevant in a later phase of the project. Finally, the individual tasks are located on the matrix and categorized in this way. If tasks were given a score of 3 in one of the criteria, it is the project manager's responsibility to categorise the task in one of the categories so the task can be handled properly. Tasks 1,5, and 9 were assigned to the first quadrant and they are the ones the project manager needs to prioritize. Tasks 2,6,10 and 13 need to be scheduled for long-term consideration. These are highly relevant but not urgent yet. Tasks categorized in the third quadrant "delegate" (3,7 and 11) need to be divided among other employees. The completion of the tasks is now the responsibility of the team members. Tasks 4,8 and 12 were categorized in the fourth quadrant. They do not contribute to achieving the objectives of the project at the moment and can be neglected.

This example emphasized the application of the Eisenhower Decision Matrix in a project management environment. Project managers can use the matrix to prioritize work that is both urgent and important, schedule tasks that are important and not urgent, assign urgent but unimportant jobs and delete or ignore tasks that are neither urgent nor important. By concentrating on the most crucial tasks and delegating or removing those that do not contribute to meeting the project's goals, the matrix can assist project managers in reaching their goals more effectively and efficiently.

Although this example is related to project management, the process can be applied to program and portfolio management as well as all three of them are closely related.

Best practices for using the Eisenhower Decision Matrix

In order to maximize the full potential of the Eisenhower Decision Matrix, there are a number of points that contribute to its success and eliminate some of the previously mentioned limitations of the tool[13]. But there are pitfalls in the use of the matrix that needs to be avoided[12].

Tips for effectively using the matrix

  1. Objective assessment: For the evaluation of the individual tasks and projects to be considered in the Eisenhower Matrix, it is advantageous to take as many perspectives as possible in order to ensure objectivity and thus the validity of the result. A diverse decision-making committee can be involved in this process.
  2. Criteria understanding: It's crucial to understand exactly what "urgent" and "important" mean in relation to the project, program, or portfolio in question. This will enable efficient resource allocation.
  3. Limit the scope: To keep the limit of tasks to 10 per quadrant helps to prevent the matrix from getting too cluttered and overwhelming.
  4. Eliminate, then prioritize: Cutting down on task before focusing on what needs to be done first can cut down the tasks/project list dramatically. Eliminating distractions and unnecessary tasks can help to free up time for the most important tasks and get rid of the mental clutter that causes procrastination.
  5. Communicate priorities: Ensure that everyone in the team is aware of the priorities that were determined using the matrix. By doing this, you can make sure that everyone is pursuing the same purposes.

Potential pitfalls to avoid when using the matrix

  1. Focusing solely on urgency: One potential pitfall is to focus solely on urgency and neglect the importance of tasks. A project manager could, for instance, give priority to urgent activities while ignoring crucial work that will affect the project in the long run. To avoid this trap, it's critical to balance urgency with importance and make sure that both aspects are taken into account while ranking jobs.
  2. Overcomplicating the matrix: Overcomplicating the matrix by including too many categories or elements is another potential issue, which can make it challenging to use the matrix effectively. This can happen when trying to address the aforementioned limitation of the tool of oversimplifying complex scenarios. For instance, making the matrix more complex than necessary can result in adding categories other than urgent and important. It's crucial to make the matrix straightforward and simple to grasp while still providing the necessary level of customization in order to avoid this problem.
  3. Failing to update the matrix: Priorities can shift quickly, and if the matrix isn't updated, decisions will be made with outdated priorities. For instance, a project manager can continue to order work according to an old matrix, resulting in waste and lost opportunity. It's crucial to continually evaluate and update the matrix to make sure it remains applicable and helpful in order to avoid this trap.

To use the matrix effectively, it's important to follow the mentioned tips. Regularly review and update the matrix, be flexible, and communicate priorities to team members. It's also important to avoid potential pitfalls such as focusing solely on urgency or overcomplicating the matrix. Organizations can maximize the use of the Eisenhower Decision Matrix and enhance their project, program, and portfolio management procedures by following to these best practices.


In conclusion, the Eisenhower Decision Matrix has proven to be a valuable tool for prioritizing tasks and making informed decisions in the field of project, program, and portfolio management. By differentiating between urgency and importance the matrix enables organizations to concentrate on the most value-adding tasks, eliminate unnecessary distractions, and make the optimal use of their time and resources. The importance of the matrix is based on its ability to increase productivity, improve time management, and enable justified decision making in a wide variety of business cases.

Even though the Eisenhower Decision Matrix is characterized by some limitations like subjectivity and simplicity, it is nonetheless a powerful tool when applied correctly. Further research and practice can benefit from exploring opportunities to address the limitations as well as further investigating how to consider more complex scenarios. Organizations can keep utilizing the full potential of the Eisenhower Decision Matrix and improve their overall management operations by sticking to best practices and avoiding potential pitfalls.

Annotated bibliography


Eisenhower, D. D. (1954), The Eisenhower Decision Matrix: How to Prioritize Your Tasks, Productivity Press.

This book by President Dwight D. Eisenhower himself outlines the basic concept of the Eisenhower Decision Matrix and provides tips for using it in your personal and professional life. The four-quadrant matrix that assists users in classifying activities according to their level of importance and urgency, is introduced in the book. Today, individuals, teams, and organizations still frequently use Eisenhower's realistic approach to task management as it has withstood the test of time. Anyone who wants to increase their productivity and utilize their time effectively should read the book.

Covey, S. R. (2004), The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People: Powerful Lessons in Personal Change, Simon and Schuster.

In this best-selling book, author Stephen Covey discusses the Eisenhower Decision Matrix as a tool for prioritizing tasks and improving time management. Because it is built on human growth and change, this book is primarily concerned with the individual. The book, now in its 25th edition, discusses ideas that provide timeless and universal truths for effective, values-based leadership, and it continues to be relevant for leaders at major organizations in Fortune 500 companies as well as for just graduated students. Covey provided a useful and constructive interpretation of Eisenhower's statements.

Online Sources

Ruth Chang (2014), How to make hard choices, TED.com

Ruth Chang is a professor at the University of Oxford and a philosopher, widely known for her work on decision-making. This online source is a video from the organization TED Conference, where Ruth Chang elaborates in one of her TED Talks on the difficulty of making decisions and how complex a decision really is. Even though this is not directly connected to the subject of the Eisenhower Decision Matrix, it is highly valuable for understanding the complexity of decision-making.

McChesney, C. (2017), The Eisenhower Decision Matrix: How to Distinguish Urgent Tasks from Important Ones, Entrepreneur.com

In this article, author Chris McChesney explains the concept of the Eisenhower Decision Matrix and provides practical examples of how it can be applied in the workplace.


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